pester1 (c.1250)

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pester1 (c.1250)

[ gdw]

[ FEW: 8,598a pistare; Gdf: 6,128c pester 1; GdfC: ; TL: 7,844 pester; DEAF:  pestel (pester); DMF:  pester / pister; TLF: ; OED: ; MED: ; DMLBS: 2294a pistare ]
pestier,  pestre;  peyster,  pister,  peitir  ii 84 pestiir  ii 116.162  

In Latin the verb pistare has a primary sense of ‘to pound or grind’ (cf. Lewis and Short 1380c), with transferred secondary senses of ‘to bake, to cook by baking’ and ‘to knead’ developing in the early medieval period (cf. DMLBS 2294a). The equivalent verb in Anglo-Norman is attested predominantly with the sense of ‘to bake’, although the context is not always clear as to which part of the process of working with cereals/dough (grinding – kneading – baking) the verb refers. The verb is used mainly with reference to the baking of bread or any dough-based product, which corresponds with the aforementioned etymology. However, the sense also seems to have been transferred to any kind of oven-baking, including the preparation of meat. In continental French, according to the DMF, the verb only has the original sense of ‘to grind’.

Both formally and semantically, the verb is very similar to paster and pestrer1, and a certain level of merging of the three must have existed already in medieval times. However, their distinct etymologies together with a different emphasis on what is the main sense and the evidence of three different word-families in the derivational nouns validate the necessity of three separate articles.


1to pound, grind
( MS: s.xv )  Leve bien totes les racines e pestez les bien [...]. E quant eles serrount triblez [...]  100.S119 bake (bread or any dough-based product)
( c.1250; MS: 1307-25 )  Ore pur pestre vostre pain au fourn le fraunceis  367r
( 1381 )  Nous vous mandons que desore enavant soeffrez noz chers et bien amez tenantz de Seint Marystret en Keddewelly en Southgales de pestier et brasier payn et servoys en manere come ils soloient faire  i 200.617
( 1390-1412; MS: s.xv1 )  que nostre pistour y veigne pour pestier de pain  407.39
( MS: 1419 )  si ascun pestour de tourte peste de payne blank  338
pester od
1to mix in, knead into a paste or dough
( c.1300?; MS: s.xivm )  Peste[z] ferine de orge ov eisil et fetez un gastel, si quissez tant que seit carbons, et de cel poudre frotez lé denz  354
( c.1300?; MS: s.xivm )  Pernez le flur de sigle, si le pestez od le jus de la racine de eble, si fetez .ii. turtels, si le quisez  495


1kneading (into a paste or dough)
( 1341 )  Item, une toune de bolnger. Item, une auge pur pester [...]  249
(TBD)  ut arte pincendi (glosses: de peyster / pester / de pestrur) in usu panis transformari possit  i 187.162 and ii 78.162
2culin.baking, roasting (of meat)
( MS: 1419 )  Item, qe kiew ne preigne pur pestre d'un chapoun ou conyng plus qe .j. denier  717


1ground, crushed
( MS: s.xv )  Pernez jus de pympernele, comyn, safroun, ben pisté, si medlez a le jus avauntdit  117.E3
2culin.(of bread, etc.) baked
( 1381 )  pur nostre dit houstel facez paier sessante soldz pur sys quarters de furment pestez en mille et .cc. payns  i 209
culin.(of meat, etc.) baked, roasted
( 1396; MS: s.xv1 )  Et aprés lui serviront de grande chare come de boef, motone, porc et veel et puis de gelyns, poullez et pullettz, poucyns, musserons, estornelx, roitelx, pestiez en graunde pastez  7.21
( 1415-17; MS: s.xv1 )  Sir, vous arez viaunde assez, coistez, rostez et pestez, mez ditez a moy vostre volunté, que vous ameroiez meulx  (D) 23.215
( 1427-28; MS: s.xv )  Porcell pestez largez  247a.i
pesté od
1mixed in with, kneaded into a dough with
( c.1300?; MS: s.xivm )  si li aparelez pain de forment pesté od l'eue et od le jus de aloigne un poy  299
pesteresce  pestur  pesturie 
This is an AND2 Phase 4 (N-O/U-P-Q) entry. © 2013-17 The Anglo-Norman Dictionary. All rights reserved. Funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council of the United Kingdom.